PHIL 216

Modal Logic


PHIL 216 is an introduction to various modal logics, broadly construed. We will investigate basic modal logic, as it is commonly referred to, but will also investigate several “non-classical logics”, including conditional logics, intuitionistic logic, many-valued logics, relevant logics and paraconsistent logics. We will use possible worlds semantics to analyse these logical systems, as well as tableaux (called truth-trees in PHIL101).

Applications to metaphysics and philosophy of language will be touched upon, allowing for optional research projects. This course will help to provide you with the philosophical and mathematical sophistication required for further logical studies at stage III.

You will learn some fundamental logical skills required to understand and study various logical systems - primarily truth-trees, metatheoretical reasoning, and "informal" (mathematics-style) proofs with different semantic definitions. The focus will be on proving validity, and providing counterexamples for invalidity, in a range of systems.


Coursework + exam

For full course information see the Digital Course Outline for PHIL 216.

Digital Course Outlines are refreshed in November for the following year. Digital Course Outlines for courses to be offered for the first time may be published slightly later.

Availability 2024

Not offered in 2024; planned for 2025


Coordinator(s) Dr Patrick Girard


An Introduction to Non-Classical Logic: From If to Is - Graham Priest, Cambridge University Press, 2008. 


Coursework plus Exam


PHIL 216: 15 points


PHIL 101